The camp was opened on 14th, January 2016, as an emergency response to receive 40,000 Burundian Refugees relocated from Nyarugusu camp to Nduta and Mtendeli. The camp suspended relocation for short time early Feb, 2016 due to land issue and water shortage then resumed on 8th April 2016 to stopped again in May to receive new arrivals.
The camp ceased to receive new arrivals from Burundi on 3rd October 2016, when the population reached 50,000 individuals. The camp is now on care and maintenance phase and water shortage remain an issue while 80% of the population is still leaving in emergency shelters.
Since April 2015, over 124,000 Burundians have fled to Tanzania as a result of political instability. The Mtendeli Refugee Camp was opened in 2015 in an effort to alleviate the overcrowding in Nyagurusu Refugee Camp. On 27th February, the UNHCR data estimates there is a total population of 50,789 refugees, all of them from Burundi.